Health benefits of Tai Chi and Qigong:
• Deep breaths support relaxation
• Relaxation increases self-healing neurological functions
• Relaxing and deepening the breath shifts brain chemistry and brain wave frequency
• Shifts brain wave frequency into alpha stage (relaxation response)
• Lowers blood pressure
• Increases circulation of oxygen and nutrients
• Optimizes the function of the organs and glands
• Increased production of energy
• Gentle activity of muscles
• Improves Awareness
• Lymph pump: carries toxins out of the body and immune cells throughout the system
• Elimination of metabolic waste products in the lymph
• Compresses the lymph rich tissues of the organs and glands
• Promotes a healing mix of neurotransmitters and hormones
• Stimulates numerous physiological mechanisms that enhance natural self-healing
• Shifts body chemistry toward self-healing mode
• Relieves pain and soreness
• Stimulates balanced organ function
• Metabolic disorders (diabetes, chronic fatigue syndrome, fibromyalgia, obesity, depression & anxiety) respond to massage
• Helps to clear the mind
• Enhances sleep
• Reduces symptoms of diseases like cancer, HIV/AIDS and multiple sclerosis
• Refines and enhances the body’s vital energy
• Restores endurance and balance
• Excellent for maintaining side-to-side flexibility
• Massages the contents of the inter vertebral disks
• Maintains a healthy distance between the vertebrae
• The forward and backward flexibility of the spine is maintained (prevents slouching)
• The Disks between the vertebrae are massaged
• Expands and compresses the sides of the rib cage
• Rib cage flexibility is utilized and maintained
• Expands the rib cage and increases lung capacity
• Builds strength and endurance of the lungs
• Strengthens the legs
• Promotes balance
• Builds bone density
• Numerous self-healing responses

Documented Medical Benefits of T'AI CHI

GENERAL BENEFITS
T'ai Chi teaches inner strength while toning muscles, increasing flexibility and boosting immune power. It is also said to reduce stress, store up energy, increase body awareness, and improve balance and coordination.
Men's Health Magazine, 8 Mar/Apr ^93 p. 66-69

IMMUNE SYSTEM:
A study conducted in China indicates that T'ai Chi may increase the number of T lymphocytes in the body. Also known as T-Cells, these lymphocytes help the immune system destroy bacteria and possibly even tumor cells.
Prevention Magazine V. 42, May 90, p. 14-15

AGING, DIABETES, AND TUBERCULOSIS:
According to T'ai Chi enthusiasts, the discipline can prevent many ailments, including high blood pressure, tuberculosis, and diabetes, and US scientists agree that T'ai Chi can offer some important fitness benefits, particularly for older adults.
Modern Maturity, V. 35 June/July 92 p. 60-62

CARDIO-RESPIRATORY EFFECTS:
The data substantiate that practicing T'ai Chi regularly may delay the decline of cardio-respiratory function in older individuals. In addition, Tai Chi may be prescribed as a suitable aerobics exercise for older adults.
Journal of American Geriatric Society, Nov. 1995, 43 (11) p!222-1227 ISSN 0002-8614 Journal Code:
H6V

RHEUMATOID ARTHRITIS:
No significant exacerbation of joint symptoms using this weight bearing system of exercises (Tai Chi) was observed. T'ai Chi exercises appear to be safe for RA patients. Weight bearing exercises have the potential advantages of stimulating bone growth and strengthening connective tissue.
American Journal of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, June 1991, 70 (3) p. 136-141

HYPERTENSION, INSOMNIA, ASTHMA AND AGING:
Proponents claim that T'ai Chi can also (1) cure illnesses such as hypertension, asthma, and insomnia, (2) prevent arteriosclerosis and spinal deformity, and (3) shorten recovery phase from long-term illness. Results from a study by Chen Munyi (1963) with elderly T'ai Chi practitioners show that this group had RTs, strength, and flexibility superior to non-practitioners.
(American Psychological Association)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 1981 SprVol 9(1) 15-22


FATIGUE, PAIN/ACHES, HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE, BREATHING.

Participants observed a "big increase in breathing capacity", a disappearance of backaches and neck aches, those with high blood pressure claimed a drop of 10 to 15 mm Hg systolic at rest, and all participants claimed to have more energy in their daily work.
Hawaii Medical Journal - Vol 51 No. 8 August 92

SPORTS HEALTH:
[Former] Boston Celtic's star Robert Parish, who, at age 39, is the oldest player in the NBA, credits the ancient martial art of T'ai CM with his durability. Parish remains dominant in his 17th season in the league, and he has no plans to retire. He started all 79 games that he played last year for the Celtics, averaging 14.1 points, shooting 54 percent from the field and 77 percent from the free throw line, and racking up a season total of 705 rebounds and 97 blocked shots. Inspired by his success, fellow Celtics players Reggie Lewis and Rick Fox have signed on with Li (Parish's T'ai Chi instructor).
Gentlemen's Quarterly V. 62 Dec. 92, p 256-60

BALANCE:
A ten year study on aging through Harvard, Yale and Emory Universities determined not only that T'ai Chi was superior to more technological balance therapies, but that T'ai Chi reduced the risk of injury by falling by 48%. Complications from these injuries are the sixth leading cause of death in older Americans, and account for about $10 billion loss per year to the economy.
USA Today, May 1996
Institute of Chicago indicates that people with moderate balance problems can be helped by practicing T'ai Chi. Participants... of the 2-month course... experienced about a 10 percent improvement in balance. An Emory University study supports [these] findings.
Prevention Magazine V. 46 Dec. 94 p. 71-72

MENTAL & PHYSICAL STRESS:
Mind & body exercises, such as ... T'ai Chi... are increasingly replacing high-impact aerobics, long distance running and other body punishing exercises of the 1980's. Mind/body workouts are kinder to the joints and muscles... reduce the tension that often contributes to the development of disease, which makes them especially appropriate for high powered, stressed out baby boomers. Unlike most conventional exercises, these forms are intended to stretch, tone, an relax the whole body instead of isolating parts... [T'ai Chi] is based on a series of progressive choreographed movements coordinated with deep breathing.
Working Woman Magazine V 20 Feb. 95 p. 60-62+

PHYSIOLOGICAL BENEFITS:
Relative to measurement beforehand, practice of T'ai Chi raised heart rate, increased non-adrenaline excretion in urine, and decreased salivary cortisol concentration. Relative to baseline levels, [Test Subjects] reported less tension, depression, anger, fatigue, confusion and state-anxiety; they felt more vigorous, and in general they had less total mood disturbance.
American Psychological Association
Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 1989 Vol 33 (2) 197-206

MENTAL HOMEOSTASIS:
Psychological homeostasis refers to emotional control or tranquility. It has been stated that the biological function of human emotion and repression is primarily homeostatic. Evidence suggests that a feedback relationship exists between forms of homeostasis, and the body-mind type of therapies (including acupuncture and T'ai Chi) thus have a combined physiological, physical, and psychological effect.
(American Psychological Association)
American Journal of Chinese Medicine, 1981 Spr Vol 9(1) 1-14

PSYCHOLOGY:
"T'ai Chi is a natural and safe vehicle for both clients and staff to learn and experience the benefits of being able to channel, concentrate and co-ordinate their bodies and minds: to learn to relax and to "neutralize" rather than resist the stress in their personal lives. This is an ability which we greatly need to nurture in our modern fast-paced society."
Dr. John Beaulieu, N.D., M.T.R.S. Bellevue Psychiatric Hospital, N.Y.C. [Refer to the Tai Chi book "The
Supreme Ultimate" for full text]

PSYCHOSOMATIC ILLNESS:
A holistic paradigm, T'ai Chi, is proposed as a theoretical basis for treating psychosomatic illness.
(American Psychological Assn.)
Journal of Black Psychology, 1980 Aug. Vol 7(1) 27-43

TAI CHI HELPS UNDERSTAND CHANGE:
Suggests the imagery of the T'ai Chi figure... can serve as a model for understanding the processes of change within psychotherapy. The T'ai Chi figure expresses the themes of unity and completeness, the dynamic of interplay and balance of opposite forces, and the cyclical nature of therapeutic change.
(American Psychological Assn.)
Psychologia, An International Journal of Psychology in the Orient, 1991 Mar Vol 34 (1) 18-27

TAI CHI & GESTALT THERAPY:
T'ai Chi, a Chinese system of integrated exercises, [is] an effective adjunct to Gestalt Therapy.
(American Psychological Association)
Journal of Contemporary Psychotherapy, 1978 Fall Vol 10 (1) 25-31

POSTURAL CONTROL:
T'ai Chi, a traditional Chinese exercise, is a series of individual dance like movements linked together in a continuous, smooth-flowing sequence... An analysis of variance (ANOVA) demonstrated that in 3 of 5 tests, the T'ai Chi practitioners had significantly better postural control than the sedentary non practitioners.
American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 1992 Apr Vol 46 (4) 295-300

BEYOND TRADITIONAL CARE:
Health practitioners encountering clients who are faced with problems that do not seem to respond to traditional health care... may employ some of the health traditions of other cultures and to view the body and mind as a balanced whole. Massage, acupuncture and T'ai Chi... focus on the mind/body connection to facilitate healing through relaxation, pressure points, and movement.
AAOHN Journal, 1993 July, 41 (7) 349-351

SUPPORT GROUPS RECOMMENDING T'AI CHI:
MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, FIBROMYALGIA, PARKINSON'S DISEASE, LUPUS, MIGRAINES, CHRONIC PAIN, AIDS ("Proper exercise [for AIDS sufferers] is typified by T'ai Chi.") (Dr. Laurence E. Badgley, M.D.)

Reference:
Compiled by Roger Jahnke, OMD
Chair, Qi Cultivation Department, Santa Barbara College of Oriental Medicine
Director, Internation Institute of Integral Qigong
Founder and Former Chairperson, National Qigong Association

1. Qigong Research References (from most recent year ):
Cherkin DC, Eisenberg D, Sherman KJ, Barlow W, Kaptchuk TJ, Street J, Deyo RA. Randomized trial comparing traditional Chinese medical acupuncture, therapeutic massage, and self-care education for chronic low back pain. Arch Intern Med. 2001 Apr 23;161(8):1081-8.

Lee MS, Kim BG, Huh HJ, Ryu H, Lee HS, Chung HT. Effect of Qi-training on blood pressure, heart rate and respiration rate.Clin Physiol. 2000 May;20(3):173-6.

Mills N, Allen J. Mindfulness of movement as a coping strategy in multiple sclerosis. A pilot study. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2000 Nov-Dec;22(6):425-31.

Luskin FM, Newell KA, Griffith M, Holmes M, Telles S, DiNucci E, Marvasti FF, Hill M, Pelletier KR, Haskell WL. A review of mind/body therapies in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders with implications for the elderly. Altern Ther Health Med. 2000 Mar;6(2):46-56.

Yocum DE, Castro WL, Cornett M. Exercise, education, and behavioral modification as alternative therapy for pain and stress in rheumatic disease. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2000 Feb;26(1):145-59, x-xi.

Sancier KM. Search for medical applications of Qigong with the Qigong Database. J Altern Complement Med. 2001 Feb;7(1):93-5.

Farrell SJ, Ross AD, Sehgal KV. Eastern movement therapies. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 1999 Aug;10(3):617-29.

Scherer TA, Spengler CM, Owassapian D, Imhof E, Boutellier U. Respiratory muscle endurance training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: impact on exercise capacity, dyspnea, and quality of life. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2000 Nov;162(5):1709-14.

Pandya DP, Vyas VH, Vyas SH. Mind-body therapy in the management and prevention of coronary disease. Compr Ther 1999 May;25(5):283-293.

Sancier KM. Therapeutic benefits of Qigong exercises in combination with drugs.
J Altern Complement Med. 1999 Aug;5(4):383-9.

Mayer M.Qigong and hypertension: a critique of research. J Altern Complement Med. 1999 Aug;5(4):371-82.

Takeichi M, Sato T, Takefu M. Studies on the psychosomatic functioning of ill-health according to eastern and Western medicine. Anxiety-affinitive constitution associated with qi, blood, and body fluid--diagnostic and therapeutic methods. Am J Chin Med. 1999;27(2):177-90.

Lee MS, Kang CW, Ryu H, Kim JD, Chung HT. Effects of ChunDoSunBup Qi-training on growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-I, and testosterone in young and elderly subjects. Am J Chin Med. 1999;27(2):167-75.

Loh SH. Qigong therapy in the treatment of metastatic colon cancer. Altern Ther Health Med. 1999 Jul;5(4):112, 111.

Iwao M, Kajiyama S, Mori H, Oogaki K, Effects of Qigong walking on diabetic patients: a pilot study. J Altern Complement Med 1999 Aug; 5(4):353-8.

Lehrer P, Sasaki Y, Saito Y. Zazen and cardiac variability. Psychosom Med. 1999 Nov-Dec;61(6):812-21.

Wu WH, Bandilla E, Ciccone DS, Yang J, Cheng SC, Carner N, Wu Y, Shen R. Effects of Qigong on late-stage complex regional pain syndrome. Altern Ther Health Med 1999 Jan; 5(1):45-54.

Reuther I, Aldridge D. Qigong Yangsheng as a complementary therapy in the management of asthma: a single-case appraisal. J Altern Complement Med. 1998 Summer;4(2):173-83.

van Dixhoorn J. Cardiorespiratory effects of breathing and relaxation instruction in myocardial infarction patients. Biol Psychol. 1998 Sep;49(1-2):123-35.

Lee MS, Kang CW, Shin YS, Huh HJ, Ryu H, Park JH, Chung HT. Acute effects of chundosunbup Qi-training on blood concentrations of TSH, calcitonin, PTH and thyroid hormones in elderly subjects. J Chin Med 1998; 26(3-4):275-281.

Li W, Xing Z, Pi D, Li X. Influence of Qi-gong on plasma TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1 alpha in two TCM types of essential hypertension. Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 1997;22(6):497-9.

Wirth DP, Cram JR, Chang RJ.Multisite electromyographic analysis of therapeutic touch and Qigong therapy. J Altern Complement Med. 1997 Summer;3(2):109-18.

Sancier KM, Medical Applications of Qigong, Altern Ther Health Med. 1996 Jan;2(1):40-6.

Wang CX, Xu DH, Qian YC. Effect of Qigong on heart-Qi deficiency and blood stasis type of hypertension and its mechanism.Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi. 1995 Aug;15(8):454-8.

Tsai TJ, Lai JS, Lee SH, Chen YM, Lan C, Yang BJ, Chiang HS. Breathing-coordinated exercise improves the quality of life in hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol. 1995 Nov;6(5):1392-400.

Tang KC. Qigong therapy--its effectiveness and regulation. Am J Chin Med. 1994;22(3-4):235-42.
Zhang W, Zheng R, Zhang B, Yu W, Shen X. An observation on flash evoked cortical potentials and Qigong meditation. Am J Chin Med. 1993;21(3-4):243-9.

Lim YA, Boone T, Flarity JR, Thompson WR. Effects of Qigong on cardiorespiratory changes: a preliminary study. Am J Chin Med. 1993;21(1):1-6.

2. Tai Chi Research References (from most recent year ):

Li JX, Hong Y, Chan KM. Tai chi: physiological characteristics and beneficial effects on health. Br J Sports Med. 2001 Jun;35(3):148-156.

Wong AM, Lin YC, Chou SW, Tang FT, Wong PY. Coordination exercise and postural stability in elderly people: Effect of Tai Chi Chuan. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2001 May;82(5):608-12.

Naruse K, Hirai T. Effects of slow tempo exercise on respiration, heart rate, and mood state. Percept Mot Skills. 2000 Dec;91(3 Pt 1):729-40.

Lin YC, Wong AM, Chou SW, Tang FT, Wong PY. The effects of Tai Chi Chuan on postural stability in the elderly: preliminary report. Changgeng Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2000 Apr;23(4):197-204.

Lan C, Lai JS, Chen SY, Wong MK. Tai Chi Chuan to improve muscular strength and endurance in elderly individuals: a pilot study. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2000 May;81(5):604-7.

Luskin FM, Newell KA, Griffith M, Holmes M, Telles S, DiNucci E, Marvasti FF, Hill M, Pelletier KR, Haskell WL. A review of mind/body therapies in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders with implications for the elderly. Altern Ther Health Med. 2000 Mar;6(2):46-56.

Hong Y, Li JX, Robinson PD. Balance control, flexibility, and cardiorespiratory fitness among older Tai Chi practitioners. Br J Sports Med. 2000 Feb;34(1):29-34.

Yocum DE, Castro WL, Cornett M. Exercise, education, and behavioral modification as alternative therapy for pain and stress in rheumatic disease.
Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 2000 Feb;26(1):145-59, x-xi.

Lane JM, Nydick M. Osteoporosis: current modes of prevention and treatment.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg. 1999 Jan;7(1):19-31.

Lan C, Chen SY, Lai JS, Wong MK. The effect of Tai Chi on cardiorespiratory function in patients with coronary artery bypass surgery. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1999 May ;31(5):634-8.

Farrell SJ, Ross AD, Sehgal KV. Eastern movement therapies. Phys Med Rehabil Clin N Am. 1999 Aug;10(3):617-29.

Chen KM, Snyder M. A research-based use of Tai Chi/movement therapy as a nursing intervention. J Holist Nurs. 1999 Sep;17(3):267-79.

Hain TC, Fuller L, Weil L, Kotsias J. Effects of T'ai Chi on balance. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg 1999 Nov;125(11):1191-1195.

Cassileth BR.Evaluating complementary and alternative therapies for cancer patients. CA Cancer J Clin. 1999 Nov-Dec;49(6):362-75.

Yan JH. Tai chi practice reduces movement force variability for seniors. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 1999 Dec;54(12):M629-34.

Masley S. Tai Chi Chuan. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998 Nov;79(11):1483.

Kessenich CR. Tai Chi as a method of fall prevention in the elderly. Orthop Nurs. 1998 Jul-Aug;17(4):27-9.

Kirsteins A. Tai-Chi Chuan. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1998 Apr;79(4):471.

Achiron A, Barak Y, Stern Y, Noy S. Electrical sensation during
Tai-Chi practice as the first manifestation of multiple sclerosis. Clin Neurol Neurosurg. 1997 Dec; 99(4):280-1.

Tsai CF, Chen SA, Tai CT, Chiang CE, Lee SH, Wen ZC, Huang JL, Ding YA, Exploring the basis for Tai Chi Chuan as a therapeutic exercise approach. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997 Aug;78(8):886-92.

Wolf SL, Coogler C, Xu T. Exploring the basis for Tai Chi Chuan as a therapeutic exercise approach. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 1997 Aug;78(8):886-92.

La Forge R. Mind-body fitness: encouraging prospects for primary and secondary prevention. J Cardiovasc Nurs. 1997 Apr;11(3):53-65.

Channer KS, Barrow D, Barrow R, Osborne M, Ives G. Changes in haemodynamic parameters following Tai Chi Chuan and aerobic exercise in patients recovering from acute myocardial infarction. Postgrad Med J. 1996 Jun;72(848):349-51.